Defining the Geopolitics of a Thirsty WorldSM
The Thirsty Dragon: Delaying “South-to-North”?

Via The Wall Street Journal, a new report that – once again – China has decided to delay part of its plan to divert billions of tons of water to its parched north, amid concerns that the massive project could cause previously unexpected environmental damage.  As the article notes

“…The four-year delay affects the central of three sections of the controversial “South-to-North” water diversion project. The project is designed to move water from China’s central and southern regions up to the arid northern provinces – in some cases hundreds of kilometers away along three man-made or -modified channels.

The total project, at an estimated $62 billion, is expected to cost nearly three times the Three Gorges Dam, the world’s largest dam, and to take decades to complete. It is expected to require the relocation of some 300,000 people, and, when finished, to carry a volume of water equal to more than half of California’s total annual consumption along its eastern, central and western routes.

The eastern route, which mostly follows the ancient Grand Canal, is largely done. The mountainous western route, which is the most controversial and technically challenging, isn’t slated for completion until 2050. The central section was supposed to start operation in 2010, but officials now say it will be finished in 2014.

In a written response to questions from The Wall Street Journal, the South-to-North Water Diversion Office under the State Council, China’s cabinet, confirmed changes in the plan, but said the new timetable represents an “adjustment,” not a delay. “We have taken appropriate measures to mitigate the environmental adverse effects that the construction projects may make,” the office said. The new measures include dams that could maintain higher water levels and reduce pollution.

The government says the South-to-North project is the only way to solve chronic water shortages. China’s water supply relative to its population is a quarter of the world average, and most of the water is concentrated in the south. In Beijing, the capital, which sits in the north, the ratio is 1/30th the world average. The north’s main river, the Yellow River, has temporarily dried up in some places, and underground aquifers are badly depleted. The South-to-North project, first proposed by Mao Zedong in 1952, was approved in 2001.

Critics, mostly scientists and environmentalists, have continued to voice opposition to the project, fearing that it will waste tens of billions of dollars and damage the environment while offering only a temporary fix. This year, local governments joined in the criticism.

The central stretch of the project which runs from the Han River, a Yangtze River tributary in central China’s Hubei Province, north to Beijing. Earlier this month, Zou Qingping, the deputy chief of the Hubei Province bureau of environmental protection, told the local government that reducing water in the Han River would worsen pollution, according to several local media reports. China’s state-controlled media, often barred from covering sensitive topics, was allowed to report extensively on the controversy, a marked departure from the strict controls over coverage of the Three Gorges Dam.

The revised plans for the central section, which were approved this month, include building a new dam and diverting water from the Yangtze River into the Han.

But Du Yun, a geologist with the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics at the China Academy of Sciences, says that even those new measures may not be sufficient. His research claims that siphoning off a third of the water from the Han River’s Danjiangkou Reservoir, as the plan calls for, will raise the risks of floods, increase sediment and worsen water quality. That will hurt navigation and irrigation for local residents and limit supplies for industrial and municipal use. In addition, he worries about unforeseen problems from such an ambitious project.”

The new plan doesn’t address the even more controversial western route, which would transfer water along canals carved through rock from the headwaters of the Yangtze in Tibet to the Yellow River. That proposal has opposition from Chinese scientists and has made India worried that it could deplete its own rivers.



This entry was posted on Tuesday, December 30th, 2008 at 10:35 am and is filed under China, India, Yangtze River, Yellow River.  You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed.  Both comments and pings are currently closed. 

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